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A small archive of important blockchain papers that every developer should know.

(The rights and credits for these papers belong to their respective writers and organizations)


1. Bitcoin - Understanding how it works

The paper that started it all. This is the first ever blockchain whitepaper. It is easy to read and explains the core concepts of the blockchain and the bitcoin network.

Bitcoin White Paper

Further Reading: Challenges for Bitcoin and Cryptocurrencies

2. Ethereum - Understanding a how smart contracts work

The Ethereum white paper introduces the account-based system, and the concept of smart contracts running on a blockchain virtual machine. It’s a long and detailed paper which can be both a blessing and curse. If you can make it through, it’s worth it!

Ethereum White Paper

Further Reading: Ethereum Wiki (External Link)

3. Peer Coin - Understanding a different consensus mechanism

This paper is one of the first to outline a new and important concensus mechanism, called proof-of-stake. This papers short and to the point, a must read.

Peercoin White Paper

Further Reading: Ouroboros - Provably secure protocol

(more comming soon)